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Sevastyan Sokolov
Sevastyan Sokolov

16 : What Should Be Done: Night Before The Coun...

The chattering teeth and shivering moans of the trainees were so loud it was hard to hear anything. And then, one voice began to echo through the night, one voice raised in song. The song was terribly out of tune, but sung with great enthusiasm. One voice became two and two became three and before long everyone in the class was singing. We knew that if one man could rise above the misery then others could as well.

16 : What Should Be Done: Night Before the Coun...

The hours that minors can work depend on age, the type of work, and whether the minor is attending school. New York State has one of the strictest child labor laws in the country. The law limits the number of hours that minors under 18 may work when school is in session. To work between 10 PM and midnight on a day before a school day, 16- and 17-year olds need written permission from a parent or guardian and a certificate of satisfactory academic standing from their school.

Minors 16 and 17 years old may not work between midnight and 6 a.m. when school is not in session. To work between 10 p.m. and midnight on a day before a school day, 16- and 17-year olds need written permission from a parent or guardian and a certificate of satisfactory academic standing from their school.

The night before Joaquin Oliver was killed at school, his father, Manuel Oliver, took his son to buy Valentine's Day flowers for his girlfriend. The teen took extra time getting dressed for school the next morning and proudly held her flowers and card in the car when his father drove him to school.

The traditional Jewish calendar of the first century AD was lunar, in which the first day of each month was determined by when the light of the new crescent moon became visible in Jerusalem shortly after sunset, the full moon rising about two weeks later. It was perhaps natural, therefore, that the setting sun should signify the end of the day and sunset the beginning of a new one, which extended to sunset the next day (night and day, rather than day and night; cf. Genesis 1:5, "And the evening and morning were the first day"). Friday, for example, began at sunset on Thursday and ended at sunset on Friday, which was the beginning of Saturday, the Jewish Sabbath. Although the notion of a new day beginning on the evening of the previous one is potentially confusing, it really is not so different than one beginning at midnight six hours later.

Daylight hours, however, still were measured from sunrise (6 a.m.). The third hour was 9 a.m.; the sixth hour, 12 noon; and the ninth hour, 3 p.m. An event that occurred just before sunset (the twelfth hour, 6 p.m.) was counted as taking place on that day and, after sunset, the next. In the Jerusalem Talmud, for example, "day and night each are a term, and part of a term is like the whole" (Shabbat, IX.3). Even if moments old, a portion of a day counted as the whole. It is important to remember, too, that days were counted inclusively and that both the first and last day were included in calculating the passage of time.

But there is disagreement as to whether Jesus died before or after this last supper and whether it truly was a Passover meal. In the synoptic Gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke; so named because they share a similar narrative, in contrast to John), Jesus is said to have been crucified and died after the Passover meal on what then was Passover day (Nisan 15). In the Gospel of John, he died before the Passover while it still was being prepared (Nisan 14). The question is whether that Friday was the Day of Passover or the Day of Preparation.

Preparations for a last supper were duly made and that evening, at what both Jesus and his disciples describe as a Passover meal, Jesus took the bread and broke it (as his own body would be broken) and then the wine, signifying the shedding of his own blood. Afterwards, Jesus and his disciples went out to the Mount of Olives and then to the Garden of Gethsemane (Mark 14:26, 32), where he was betrayed by Judas and arrested. Tried before the high priest and the assembled chief priests, elders, and scribes (Sanhedrin) (14:53), Jesus was found guilty by Pontius Pilate and crucified the next morning at "the third hour" (9 a.m.) on Passover day (15:25). Given the prolonged agony of crucifixion, Jesus died later that afternoon at the ninth hour (3 p.m.) (15:34, Matthew 27:46, Luke 23:44). ("Excruciating," coincidentally, derives from the Latin crux, "cross.")

John was the last Gospel to be written, about twenty-five years later. He relates that Jesus died "before the feast of the passover, when Jesus knew that his hour was come that he should depart out of this world unto the Father" (13:1). There was no preparation for a Passover meal nor mention of a communion; rather, "supper being ended," Jesus washed the feet of his disciples (13:2, 5) and, echoing Moses, gave them a new commandment: to love one another (13:34).

Arrested that night, Jesus was bound and taken first to the house of Annas who, after fruitless questioning, sent him to his son-in-law Caiaphas, the high priest who, in turn, had Jesus escorted to the praetorium of Pilate himself (18:13, 24, 28). By now, it was early morning, a cock already having crowed. The Jewish authorities refused to enter the building, however, "lest they should be defiled; but that they might eat the passover" that evening (18:28), obliging Pilate, somewhat incongruously, to pass to and from his own palace as he questioned Jesus and then his accusers. Finally brought outside for judgment, Jesus was led away to be crucified. "It was the preparation of the passover, and about the sixth hour" (noontime) (19:14, 16).

In John, Jesus died on the Day of Preparation (Nisan 14), the day before the Passover meal, sometime after noon but before sunset that evening. (Philo speaks of Passover "beginning at noonday and continuing till evening," The Special Laws, II.37.145). Having had a last supper the night before, Jesus does not partake of the Passover meal but is sentenced and crucified while (in the Synoptics) it still was being prepared. When Luke, example, says it was about the sixth hour (noontime) that Jesus reassured the thief on the cross that he would be with him that day in paradise (23:44), in John, Jesus still was standing before Pilate, who declared to the Jews, "Behold your King!" (19:14).

But there was another incident, this one historical rather than astronomical, that supports the crucifixion of Jesus in AD 33: the death in Rome of the praetorian prefect Lucius Sejanus, commander of the imperial guard, two years before. When Tiberius retired to Capri in AD 26, he effectively abdicated his responsibilities to Sejanus, who appointed Pilate prefect of Judaea that year. Both men were virulently anti-Jewish: Sejanus "desirous to destroy our nation" (Philo, On the Embassy to Gaius, XXIV.160; Against Flaccus, I.1) and Pilate determined "to abolish the Jewish laws" (Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, XVIII.3.1). When, to honor Tiberius, Pilate dedicated some gilded shields in Herod's palace in Jerusalem, there was a riot (On the Embassy to Gaius, XXXVIII.299ff). Josephus later relates a similar (if not the same) story. Roman standards, adorned with the emperor's image, were brought secretly into Jerusalem during the night, prompting a riot among the populace, who considered "their laws to have been trampled under foot" (The Jewish War, II.9.2-3; retold in Antiquities of the Jews, XVIII.3.1). Money taken from the Temple treasury to begin construction of an aqueduct provoked further unrest, which was brutally suppressed (The Jewish War, II.9.4; also Antiquities of the Jews, XVIII.3.2). 041b061a72